3 edition of The making of mirrors by the deposition of metal on glass. found in the catalog.
The making of mirrors by the deposition of metal on glass.
United States. National Bureau of Standards.
|Series||Circular of the Bureau of Standards -- no. 389|
|The Physical Object|
|Number of Pages||17|
|LC Control Number||31026396|
Electron beam lithography[ edit ] Main article: Electron beam lithography Electron beam lithography often abbreviated as e-beam lithography is the practice of scanning a beam of electrons in a patterned fashion across a surface covered with a film called the resist "exposing" the resist and of selectively removing either exposed or non-exposed regions of the resist "developing". Care must be taken that the raw materials have not reacted with moisture or other chemicals in the environment such as alkali or alkaline earth metal oxides and hydroxides, or boron oxideor that the impurities are quantified loss on ignition. Mirrors made of other metal mixtures alloys such as copper and tin speculum metal may have also been produced in China and India. In classical antiquity, mirrors were made of solid metal bronze, later silver  and were generally too expensive for use by common people, although during the Roman Empire even maid servants used widespread silver mirrors;  they were also prone to corrosion. Instead, glass manufacturing processes in the past produced sheets of non-uniform thickness leading to observed sagging and ripples in old windows. Also, the turn-around time for reworking or re-design is lengthened unnecessarily if the pattern is not being changed the second time.
Fused quartz is used for high-temperature applications such as furnace tubes, lighting tubes, melting crucibles, etc. Reaction with carbon dioxide can also occur to leave a white layer of sodium carbonate. Aluminum was a desirable material for mirrors, but was too dangerous to apply with electroplating. Evaporation coatingpioneered by Pohl and Pringsheim inresulted from a similar problem in incandescent light bulbs in which the filament would slowly sublimate when heated in a vacuumcoating the cooler glass surface. The blank-filled base is placed against another metal plate with the desired surface shape: flat, convex, or concave. Optical properties[ edit ] Glass is in widespread use largely due to the production of glass compositions that are transparent to visible light.
Finer and finer grits are used until the surface is very smooth and even. The Future As glassmaking techniques improve, mirrors find a more elaborate place in art and architecture. It was used in IC fabrication for patterning the gate oxide until the process step was replaced by RIE. Spent a few hours reading it cover to cover and contemplating the pattern! Even specialty optics can be made mechanically in adjustable equipment.
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More recently a number of alloys have been produced in layers with thickness exceeding 1 millimeter. A diamminesilver I solution is mixed with a sugar and sprayed onto the glass surface.
Pure silica in the form of fused silica, sometimes called fused quartz, is more stable chemically than glass compositions, and therefore can be cleaned by stronger acidic solutions without surface damage. It reflects only about 4 percent of the light which strikes it.
November,p. It The making of mirrors by the deposition of metal on glass. book the best reflectivity in the infrared spectrum, and has high resistance to oxidation and corrosion.
This effect is often used to intentionally pattern the mirror. When these gases combine in extreme heat, they react to form a solid substance. Mirrors are used for practical purposes as well: examining our appearance, examining what is behind us on the road, building skyscrapers, and making scientific research instruments, such as microscopes and lasers.
A clean surface has a high coefficient of friction, and this can be felt or detected by contact with a metal point. The obtained glass is usually annealed to prevent breakage during processing. The mirror design will also specify the type of coating to be used.
Usually, the melts are carried out in platinum crucibles to reduce contamination from the crucible material. The chemical nature of this etching process provides a good selectivity, which means the etching rate of the target material is considerably higher than the mask material if selected carefully.
X-ray lithography[ edit ] X-ray lithography is a process used in electronic industry to selectively remove parts of a thin film.
Variations in cleaning agents and procedures have been developed for different glass and polymer compositions.
Structural depth can be defined either by ion range or by material thickness. The surface of these grooves can be atomically smooth if the etch is carried out correctly, with dimensions and angles being extremely accurate.
This method produced the first mirror-quality glass panes, but it was very difficult and resulted in a lot of breakage. Examples of these techniques include aerodynamic levitation cooling the melt whilst it floats on a gas stream The making of mirrors by the deposition of metal on glass.
book,   splat quenching pressing the melt between two metal anvils  and roller quenching pouring the melt through rollers. His was thus not a passive mirror of imitation but an active mirror of transformation.
The image would be slightly distorted in this case, but the distortion would be barely visible to the naked eye. Cutting is usually done before the metal coating is applied, because the coating may flake off the glass as a result of the cut.
These are useful because the solubility of the compound is greatly increased when it is amorphous compared to the same crystalline composition. Kate Z. The show also merges the Queen of Hearts and the Red Queen into one character. Next, the blanks are put in optical grinding machines, which use abrasive liquid plus a grinding plate to produce a very even, smooth finish on the blanks.
Argon plasmas are useful in decomposing and desorbing organics. Alice was played in both parts by Laura Wickham. Glass is also considered a good material for mirrors because it can be molded into various shapes for specialty mirrors.Glass is a non-crystalline, often transparent amorphous solid, that has widespread practical, technological, and decorative use in, for example, window panes, tableware, and optics.
Glass is most often formed by rapid cooling of the molten form, some glasses such as. What is the best way to promote adhesion between glass and chromium? You did not mention your means of metal deposition. RF or DC Sputter? Refer to a nice book "Handbook of thin film.
Thin Film Deposition Processes and Characterization Techniques Part-A Thin Film Deposition Processes 2A Introduction to Thin Films 45 usefulness of the optical properties of metal films, and scientific curiosity about the produce mirrors which reflect greater than % of .Sep 01, · Glass: A World History [Alan Pdf, Gerry Martin] on magicechomusic.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
Picture, if you can, a world without glass. There would be no microscopes or telescopes, no sciences of microbiology or astronomy. People with poor vision would grope in Cited by: Get this from a library!
The making of mirrors by the deposition of metal on glass. Issued January 6, [United States. National Bureau of Standards.; United States. Bureau of Standards.].The first mirrors used by ebook were most likely pools of crystal clear still water, or water collected in a primitive vessel of some sort.
Thus, water was a symbol of the self and a symbol of death. The first manufactured mirrors were pieces of polished stone such as .